BP 404 T. PHARMACOLOGY-I (Theory) Hand Written Notes

BP 404 T. PHARMACOLOGY-I (Theory) Hand Written Notes.

Scope: The main purpose of the subject is to understand what drugs do to the living
organisms and how their effects can be applied to therapeutics. The subject covers the
information about the drugs like, mechanism of action, physiological and biochemical
effects (pharmacodynamics) as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
(pharmacokinetics) along with the adverse effects, clinical uses, interactions, doses,
contraindications and routes of administration of different classes of drugs.
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to

  1. Understand the pharmacological actions of different categories of drugs
  2. Explain the mechanism of drug action at organ system/sub cellular/
    macromolecular levels.
  3. Apply the basic pharmacological knowledge in the prevention and treatment of
    various diseases.
  4. Observe the effect of drugs on animals by simulated experiments
  5. Appreciate correlation of pharmacology with other bio medical sciences

UNIT – 1

General Pharmacology
a. Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of
pharmacology, nature and source of drugs, essential drugs concept and routes of
drug administration, Agonists, antagonists( competitive and non competitive), spare
receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy. b. Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism and
excretion of drugs .Enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination.

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General Pharmacology
a. Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories
and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions
signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptor,
transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding
receptor and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose response
relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying
drug action.
b. Adverse drug reactions.
c. Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic)
d. Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs -Drug discovery phase, preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and

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Pharmacology of drugs acting on peripheral nervous system
a. Organization and function of ANS. b.Neurohumoral transmission,co-transmission and classification of neurotransmitters. c. Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, sympatholytics.
d. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).
e. Local anesthetic agents.
f. Drugs used in myasthenia gravis and glaucoma.

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UNIT-IV 08 Hours


Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
a. Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S.special emphasis on importance of various
neurotransmitters like with GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin, dopamine. b. General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics. c. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants.
d. Anti-epileptics
e. Alcohols and disulfiram

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Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
a. Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents,
anti-manics and hallucinogens.
b. Drugs used in Parkinsons disease and Alzheimer’s disease. c. CNS stimulants and nootropics.
d. Opioid analgesics and antagonists
e. Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.

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