BP 204T. Pathophysiology Hand Written Notes

BP 204T. Pathophysiology Hand Written Notes

Scope: Pathophysiology is the study of causes of diseases and reactions of the body to
such disease-producing causes. This course is designed to impart a thorough knowledge of
the relevant aspects of the pathology of various conditions with reference to its
pharmacological applications, and understanding of basic pathophysiological
mechanisms. Hence it will not only help to study the syllabus of pathology but also to
get the baseline knowledge required to practice medicine safely, confidently, rationally, and

 Basic principles of Cell injury and Adaptation:
Introduction, definitions, Homeostasis, Components and Types of Feedback systems,
Causes of cellular injury,Pathogenesis (Cell membrane damage, Mitochondrial damage,
Ribosome damage, Nuclear damage),Morphology of cell injury – Adaptive changes
(Atrophy, Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia),Cell swelling, Intra cellular
accumulation, Calcification, Enzyme leakage and Cell Death Acidosis
&Alkalosis,Electrolyte imbalance.

 Basic mechanism involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
Introduction, Clinical signs of inflammation, Different types of Inflammation,Mechanism
of Inflammation – Alteration in vascular permeability and blood flow, migration of
WBC’s,Mediators of inflammation,Basic principles of wound healing in the
skin,Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis.


Cardiovascular System:
Hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease (angina,myocardial
infarction, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis)

 Respiratory system:Asthma, Chronic obstructive airways diseases.

 Renal system:Acute and chronic renal failure.


Haematological Diseases:
Iron deficiency, megaloblastic anemia (Vit B12 and folic acid), sickle cell anemia, thalasemia, hereditary acquired anemia, hemophilia

 Endocrine system: Diabetes, thyroid diseases, disorders of sex hormones

 Nervous system: Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, psychiatric disorders:
depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.

 Gastrointestinal system: Peptic Ulcer.


Inflammatory bowel diseases, jaundice, hepatitis (A,B, C,D,E,F) alcoholic liver

 The disease of bones and joints: Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and gout  Principles of cancer: classification, etiology, and pathogenesis of cancer

 Diseases of bones and joints: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout

 Principles of Cancer: Classification, etiology, and pathogenesis of Cancer.


Infectious diseases:Meningitis, Typhoid, Leprosy, Tuberculosis
Urinary tract infections  Sexually transmitted diseases: AIDS, Syphilis, Gonorrhea.


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